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Editing Constraints

Editing Constraints


SchemaHero supports creating and editing constraints on database table columns.

nullability

When changing a column from option to required (adding a "not null" constraint), SchemaHero supports adding a default to the column and will update all existing rows with this new default. For a large table, this change may impact performance when the migration is applied.

For example, assume a simple table is created with the following definition:

apiVersion: schemas.schemahero.io/v1alpha4
kind: Table
metadata:
  name: flights
spec:
  database: my-database
  name: flights
  schema:
    postgres:
      primaryKey: [origin, destination]
      columns:
        - name: origin
          type: char(4)
        - name: destination
          type: char(4)
        - name: frequency
          type: varchar(255)

Later, assume that the frequency column has null values and there's a requirement to make this column not nullable. Editing this table definition to be:

apiVersion: schemas.schemahero.io/v1alpha4
kind: Table
metadata:
  name: flights
spec:
  database: my-database
  name: flights
  schema:
    postgres:
      primaryKey: [origin, destination]
      columns:
        - name: origin
          type: char(4)
        - name: destination
          type: char(4)
        - name: frequency
          type: varchar(255)
          default: "imported"
          constraints:
            notNull: true

Will create a migration that has 3 phases:

1. Add Default

This step is completed first. This will ensure that any new data inserted will have the default value applied while the rest of the migration continues.

2. Update Values

Next, SchemaHero will run a command similar to update flights set frequency = 'imported' where frequency is null (this will be created in a format appropriate for and compatible with the ddl syntax the engine requires).

3. Apply Constraint

Finally, SchemaHero will apply the not null constraint to the table, preventing nullable values from being written.

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