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Modify Table

Modify Table


In this step, we are going to deploy a table and then make a change to it.

Create the schedule table

Similar to the last step, let's create a schedule table that has the following schema:

To accomplish this, create a local file named schedule-table.yaml and paste the following contents into it:

apiVersion: schemas.schemahero.io/v1alpha4
kind: Table
metadata:
  name: schedule
  namespace: schemahero-tutorial
spec:
  database: airlinedb
  name: schedule
  schema:
    postgres:
      primaryKey: [flight_num]
      columns:
        - name: flight_num
          type: int
        - name: origin
          type: char(4)
          constraints:
            notNull: true
        - name: destination
          type: char(4)
          constraints:
            notNull: true
        - name: departure_time
          type: time
          constraints:
            notNull: true
        - name: arrival_time
          type: time
          constraints:
            notNull: true

After saving this file, deploy it using:

kubectl apply -f ./schedule-table.yaml -n schemahero-tutorial

Wait for this migration to be planned. Check on the migration status by running:

kubectl schemahero get migrations -n schemahero-tutorial

When the schedule table migration is ready, it will show up in the output:

ID       DATABASE   TABLE     PLANNED  EXECUTED  APPROVED  REJECTED
a9626a8  airlinedb  schedule  21s
eaa36ef  airlinedb  airport   4h       3h        3h

Let's apply this migration:

kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial approve migration a9626a8

To confirm, open Beekeeper Studio and see the schedule table:

Change columns

Let's make a few changes to this table schema now:

  • Make the departure_time and arrival_time columns nullable
  • Add a new column named duration

To do this, open the schedule.yaml file and make these changes. Remove the constraints from the departure_time and the arrival_time columns. Add a new column named duration, type int, with no constraints.

The file should look like this:

apiVersion: schemas.schemahero.io/v1alpha4
kind: Table
metadata:
  name: schedule
  namespace: schemahero-tutorial
spec:
  database: airlinedb
  name: schedule
  schema:
    postgres:
      primaryKey: [flight_num]
      columns:
        - name: flight_num
          type: int
        - name: origin
          type: char(4)
          constraints:
            notNull: true
        - name: destination
          type: char(4)
          constraints:
            notNull: true
        - name: departure_time
          type: time
        - name: arrival_time
          type: time
        - name: duration
          type: int

Apply this change using kubectl:

kubectl apply -f ./schedule-table.yaml

Just like before, list the migrations:

kubectl schemahero get migrations -n schemahero-tutorial

This time, there will be a new migration pending:

ID       DATABASE   TABLE     PLANNED  EXECUTED  APPROVED  REJECTED
a9626a8  airlinedb  schedule  9m30s    7m58s     8m0s
eaa36ef  airlinedb  airport   4h       4h        4h
fa32022  airlinedb  schedule  5s

View the migration

We can now view the migration:

kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial describe migration fa32022

And the output is now:

Migration Name: fa32022

Generated DDL Statement (generated at 2020-06-06T14:56:04-07:00):
  alter table "schedule" alter column "departure_time" type time, alter column "departure_time" drop not null;
  alter table "schedule" alter column "arrival_time" type time, alter column "arrival_time" drop not null;
  alter table "schedule" add column "duration" integer;


To apply this migration:
  kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial approve migration fa32022

To recalculate this migration against the current schema:
  kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial recalculate migration fa32022

To deny and cancel this migration:
  kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial  reject migration fa32022

Let's review this migration. The Generated DDL statements now include 3 different statements. SchemaHero has compared the YAML we just deployed to the actual database schema, and generated the commands above.

Approve the migration

Once again, we can approve this migration:

kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial approve migration fa32022

SchemaHero will show that it's been approved by printing:

Migration fa32022 approved

Verify in the database management utility

Refreshing the table view in Beekeeper Studio, we can see the change has been applied:

Adding a foreign key

Let's make another change. This time, we want to add a foreign key to make sure that all data entered in the origin and destination columns are present in the airport table.

To add a foreign key, we can edit the schedule.yaml and add the foreignKey constraints to this table. The updated table YAML will look like:

apiVersion: schemas.schemahero.io/v1alpha4
kind: Table
metadata:
  name: schedule
  namespace: schemahero-tutorial
spec:
  database: airlinedb
  name: schedule
  schema:
    postgres:
      primaryKey: [flight_num]
      foreignKeys:
        - columns:
            - origin
          references:
            table: airport
            columns:
              - code
        - columns:
          - destination
          references:
            table: airport
            columns:
              - code
      columns:
        - name: flight_num
          type: int
        - name: origin
          type: char(4)
          constraints:
            notNull: true
        - name: destination
          type: char(4)
          constraints:
            notNull: true
        - name: departure_time
          type: time
        - name: arrival_time
          type: time
        - name: duration
          type: int

Once again, apply and view the migration:

kubectl apply -f ./schedule-table.yaml
kubectl schemahero get migrations -n schemahero-tutorialID       DATABASE   TABLE     PLANNED  EXECUTED  APPROVED  REJECTED
a9626a8  airlinedb  schedule  22m      20m       20m
b12d3fd  airlinedb  schedule  54s
eaa36ef  airlinedb  airport   4h       4h        4h
fa32022  airlinedb  schedule  12m      9m36s     9m44s
kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial describe migration b12d3fd
Migration Name: b12d3fd

Generated DDL Statement (generated at 2020-06-06T15:07:54-07:00):
  alter table "schedule" alter column "departure_time" type time;
  alter table "schedule" alter column "arrival_time" type time;
  alter table schedule add constraint schedule_origin_fkey foreign key (origin) references airport (code);
  alter table schedule add constraint schedule_destination_fkey foreign key (destination) references airport (code);


To apply this migration:
  kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial approve migration b12d3fd

To recalculate this migration against the current schema:
  kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial recalculate migration b12d3fd

To deny and cancel this migration:
  kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial reject migration b12d3fd

You can see in the Generated DDL that the new foreign keys will be applied:

  alter table schedule add constraint schedule_origin_fkey foreign key (origin) references airport (code);
  alter table schedule add constraint schedule_destination_fkey foreign key (destination) references airport (code);

Approve and verify

Approve the migration:

kubectl schemahero -n schemahero-tutorial approve migration b12d3fd

You can use your database management utility to verify that the migration was applied, and the foreign keys now exist.

Next steps

Next, we'll review what we've done in this tutorial and help you figure out how to use SchemaHero in your environment.

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